ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION AND BY- LAWS OF THE ARIZONA POLYGRAPH ASSOCIATION EST 1973 REVISED – 1997 ARIZONA POLYGRAPH ASSOCIAT1ON CONSTITUTION
NAME The name of the organization shall be the Arizona Polygraph Association hereinafter referred to as AzPA.
OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSES
The objectives of the Arizona Polygraph Association shall be to:
1. serve the cause of truth – with integrity, objectively and fairly;
2. encourage and support research. education and training intended to enhance the polygrapher’s ability and capability;
3. provide a forum for the presentation and exchange of information relative to polygraphy;
4. judiciously screen applicants for membership to determine their training, experience, education and moral conduct to assure commitment to these objectives;
5. regulate the conduct of its members by encouraging utilization of recognized and accepted standards of procedures and techniques;
6. to endeavor to educate others relative to polygraph through provision of speakers;
CODE OF ETHICS
The members of this Association pledge themselves by virtue of their membership to:
1. assume the responsibility for conduct and behavior designed to serve the cause of truth and justice;
2. maintain the highest standards of professional, moral and ethical conduct;
3. respect the inherent dignity of mankind and deal justly. fairly and objectively with each individual;
4. hold themselves apart from influences intended to benefit their political, personal or financial well-being while influencing their professional judgements;
5. refrain from false or misleading advertisement. statements. and from public criticism of fellow members;
6. support the goals and efforts of this Association.
1. There shall be five (5) classes of membership: MEMBER, INTERN, ASSOCIATE, HONORARY AND LIFE. Any person who has been convicted of a felony or a crime involving moral turpitude may be ineligible for any class of membership in AzPa.
To qualify for full privileges and standing as a Member. the applicant must meet the following requirements: The applicant shall:
1. have completed a course of formal instruction in polygraph instrumentation and techniques totaling at least three hundred (300) hours of classroom instruction at an accredited polygraph school which is recognized by the Board of Directors of this Association. Recognition of accredited polygraph schools shall be by acknowledgment of same in the minutes of a regularly scheduled meeting.
2. have administered at least two hundred (200) polygraph examinations utilizing an instrument capable of simultaneously recording respiration, psycho-galvanic skin reactions. pulse rate and relative blood pressure changes within three (3) years following applicants completion of training at a polygraph school (accredited). At least fifty (50) of the two hundred (200) examinations must be “Specific” as opposed to screening.examinations.
3. submit a written application for membership, accompanied by proof of applicants graduation from an accredited polygraph school. Shall document completion of the required minimum number of examinations by submission of a personal log book containing information regarding the number and type of examinations administered, unless prohibited by the employing agency. If so prohibited, a letter certifying to the examinations must be submitted.
4. appear before the Membership Committee at a regularly scheduled meeting for a personal interview. Applicant shall be prepared to submit his/her personal log and related papers for review, which shall include five (5) Specific examinations in their entirety–charts, questions, release forms, case facts, etc. Applicant shall be able to explain the technique used and justify conclusions reached and successfully pass an approved written test relating to polygraph to be developed and administered by the membership committee. This test will be given at the discretion of the Board of Directors.
5. shall be able to hold office after one year’s membership in the Az.P.A
6. shall be a permanent resident of Arizona.
Applicants for intern membership shall:
1. submit written application for membership to the Secretary. accompanied by proof of graduation from an accredited polygraph school. Their sponsors and references must be AzPa or American Polygraph Association members in good standing.
2. successfully pass an approved written test relating to polygraph to be developed and administered by the Membership Committee. Intern members in good standing shall:
3. be eligible to attend and participate in all activities of AzPa, they shall have voting rights in matters before the membership. They will not be eligible for elective offices in the Association.
4. not represent themselves as being other than intern members of AzPa
5. in order to assure their progress toward full membership, conduct polygraph examinations under the guidance or direction of a full member of AzPa or the American Polygraph Association.
6. if unable to comply with the provisions of “Article IV.1.B.5″ above, periodically submit their work for review by members designated by the Membership Committee.
7. not have their intern status extended beyond three (3) years from the date of acceptance as interns. except when acceptable extenuating circumstance are approved by the Membership Committee.
8. be eligible to be elevated to Member after having satisfactorily completed at least one (1) year as an intern member. The membership Committee will assure the requirements of Article IV AzPa have been met.
1. Persons have a valid professional interest in Polygraphy shall be eligible for membership as Associate members of AzPa
2. Associate membership may include representatives of polygraph instrument manufacturers; personnel involved in the research of polygraph instrumentation and techniques; members of other state polygraph organizations who meet AzPa membership standards; and other persons approved by the Membership Committee as having a valid or professional interest in the polygraph profession.
3. Associate members in good standing shall be eligible to attend and participate in all activities of the Association open to the membership. but shall not represent themselves as being other than Associate members of AzPa
4 Associate members shall have no voting rights in matters before Az.P.A nor are Associate members eligible for offices within AzPa
1. Those persons who shall have been nominated by a to-thirds majority of the Board of Directors and approved by a majority vote of the membership of AzPa as having made a significant and outstanding contribution to the Polygraph profession may be extended honorary membership in AzPa Any Member in good standing may suggest to the Board of Directors a nominee for honorary membership in AzPa
2. Honorary members shall be eligible to attend and participate in all activities of AzPa open to the membership, but shall not represent themselves as being other than honorary members.
3. Honorary members shall have no voting rights in matters before AzPa, nor are they eligible for elective offices within AzPa
1. Members who, by reason of retirement. health or personal finances would have to sever their association with AzPa, solely because of the inability to pay dues and assessments. may be granted Life membership in AzPa
2. Members who have made some outstanding contributions to AzPa and / or the polygraph profession may be granted Life Membership.
3. A Member who has been a Member in good standing continuously for twenty five (25) years may be granted Life membership.
4. This class of membership is based upon nomination by a two-thirds majority vote of the Board of Directors and upon approval by a majority vote of the membership.
5. Life members shall be exempt from all dues and assessments of AzPa and shall retain all the rights of Members.
F. State Regulatory Requirements
1. AzPa is dedicated to the regulation of polygraph examiners by the State of Arizona. If the qualifications of polygraph examiners set out in any such law passed subsequent to the adoption of this constitution are in conflict with any of the requirements for membership set out above, they shall automatically be resolved in favor of the regulation act. The only exception to this provision would be if the standards called for are lower than those in this document.
2. The Board of Directors. upon acknowledging that a particular polygraph school meets the necessary instructional criteria. shall maintain a list of same. Updating of this list shall be made by including such information in the minutes of a regularly scheduled meeting.
G. Termination of Membership
Membership may be terminated for conduct which tends to injure AzPa, affects adversely its reputation, or which is contrary to or destructive of its objectives. The processing of actions to terminate the membership of a member shall be as follows.
1. Allegations of injurious conduct shall be submitted in writing (four copies) to the President of AzPa An additional copy of the complaint shall be submitted to the Secretary by the originator. The President wil1 review the complaint and forward the matter to the Chairman of the Committee on Standards and Ethics. That committee will conduct the necessary investigation of the allegations and shall determine whether the matter should be dismissed or whether the results of the investigation should be presented to the Board of Directors for their review and necessary action. No investigation shall be conducted without the knowledge of the member, and all investigations with appropriate material and recommendations shall be submitted to the Board for review. If the complaint is against the Chairman of the Committee on Standards and Ethics, the President will then appoint an alternate Chairman of the Committee while the matter is under investigation and / or review.
2. Should the Ethics Committee deem a polygraph test necessary in an investigation of injurious conduct, the following shall be adhered to:
a. If the Ethics Committee’s investigation of injurious conduct of a member indicates a polygraph examination of that member is desirable to refute or substantiate those injurious conduct charges..the Committee will appoint three (3) member polygraph examiners to conduct that polygraph examination. Those member examiners will conduct that polygraph examination at the direction of the Chairman of the Ethics Committee and submit their reports of the outcome and / or opinion of the truthfulness of the member subject in writing to the Chairman.
b. Should injurious conduct charges be made against a member by another member and the Ethics Committee deems it desirable to have those charges substantiated, they will appoint three (3) member examiners to conduct a polygraph examination on the member making the charges and report the results of the examination in writing to the Chairman.
c. Should the Ethics Committee deem a polygraph examination desirable on the accused or the accuser. the Committee must have the approval of 3/4 of the quorum of the elected members before the polygraph examination is conducted. The President would then Call a special meeting of the elected members for this purpose.
d. Members appointed by the Ethics Committed Chairman to conduct polygraph examinations on members regarding injurious conduct charges will serve without remuneration.
e. Should a member refuse to submit to a polygraph examination under any of the aforementioned terms. that member will be subject to termination of membership.
3. Conviction of a member for a felony offense or a crime involving moral turpitude may be grounds for termination of membership. If arrested, charged or formally arraigned, the member must report this fact to the Standards and Ethics Committee within thirty (30) days.
4. In all cases. the Standards and Ethics committee shall recommend action only after the member has been informed of the nature of the allegations against him/her and has been afforded the opportunity for a hearing before the Standards and Ethics Committee.
5. The Standards and Ethics Committee shall inform the member of any recommendations or actions in those cases which have been forwarded to the Board of Directors. The member shall have thirty (30) days from the date he/she received such notification to inform the Board of Directors that he/she intends to present his/her case before them. The date of the actual presentation of his/her case shall be agreed upon between the parties involved.
6. After considering all evidence in the case. including any presentation made by the member the Board of Directors may;
a. by 3/4 majority vote, dismiss all charges against the member.
b. by majority vote find the charge(s) sustained and direct the censure of the member or the placement of his/her membership in a probationary status.
c. by a 3/4 majority vote find the charge(s) sustained and recommend to the Association the dismissal of the member.
7. The Board of directors must recommend the dismissal of any member at the first regular business meeting following their vote. Dismissal will be determined by a majority vote of the members in attendance at the meeting to which the recommendation is made by the Board.
8. A member who shall have been dismissed from membership may be allowed to reapply for membership. Upon satisfactory proof or evidence that, professionally and ethically, the former members meets the standards for readmission into membership in AzPa
9. Upon proper request. any member may resign without prejudice from Az.P.A or may be reclassified to Associate membership status within the Association.
10. Members, regardless of category shall be terminated from membership automatically for non-payment of current financial obligations to the Association.
11. Membership may be terminated automatically if the member fails to attend both the training meeting and business meeting of at least one regularly scheduled meeting during the calendar year.
12. If a member in good standing is a resident of a state other than Arizona, and he/she has requested in writing that he/she be permitted to retain his/her class of membership, the attendance requirement may be waived.
13. The provisions of 9. 10, and 11 of this section shall apply to the Members and Interns of AzPa only.
H. Reinstatement of Membership
1. Any member who resigned without prejudice from AzPa shall be reinstated upon request to the type of membership for which he/she was qualified at the time of his/her resignation. provided that he/she meets current membership standards. Reinstated members shall pay monies due AzPa at time of resignation, plus dues for current year.
2. Any member who was terminated for non-payment of financial obligations or non-attendance may, within one year, be reinstated upon request to the type of membership for which he/she was qualified at the time of his/her membership termination provided that he/she meets current membership standards and that the request of reinstatement includes payment of monies due AzPa at the time of his/her termination plus any amount due for the current year.
3. Reinstatement into membership may be accomplished upon recommendation of membership at a scheduled business meeting.
The officers of AzPA shall be President, Vice-President – Government, Vice-President-Private, Secretary, Treasurer and three (3) Directors comprising a Board of Directors. The Officers shall be elected by a majority vote of the voting membership present during the Spring meeting. Officers may succeed themselves for more than one additional term in the same office position, as approved by the Board, providing notification of elections and/or possible candidates has been solicited.
The President shall be elected for a term of one year and shall be the presiding chairman at all official meetings of AzPa He/she shall have general supervision over the affairs and administration of AzPa and of the duties performed by other elected officers and appointees.
He/she shall perform such other duties as the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or as may be provided by the Constitution and By-Laws. He/she shall represent AzPa at official functions and have the authority to designate one of the Vice-Presidents or any other member to act in his/her behalf should the President be unable to be present. He/she shall call special meetings of AzPa or of the Board of Directors when required to do so by a majority of the Board of Directors, or upon written request by one-half of the voting members in good standing in AzPa
He/she shall designate all committees and shall appoint all committee chairmen.. The out-going President shall be a member of the Board of Directors for a period of one year or until another President is elected.
The Vice-President for Police and the Vice-President for Private shall be elected for a term of one year and perform the duties of the President in the President’s absence and any other duties requested of them by the President. The Vice-Presidents shall be co-chairmen of the training and seminar committee.
The Secretary shall be elected for a one-year term. It will be the duty of the Secretary to cause to be entered in the proper books all resolutions, minutes and proceedings of AzPa and of the Board of Directors. He/she shall conduct correspondence relating to AzPa and issue notices of all meetings of AzPa and the Board of Directors. He/she shall keep a current record of the membership and shall perform all duties pertaining to the office of Secretary as AzPa may from time to time direct. He/she shall publish annually a list of the membership, which shall include the last known address and type of membership held. He/she shall edit a newsletter to include events of the prior meetings. The office of Secretary and Treasurer may be performed by the same person.
The Treasurer shall be elected for a one-year term. The Treasurer shall be custodian of all funds and securities of AzPa, and shall promptly deposit all funds in designated banks. He/she shall act as financial advisor to the President and Board of Directors on all budgetary matters and problems of finance. He/she shall keep accurate records of receipts and disbursements and shall pay all bills promptly. His/her records shall be made available upon request of the Audit Committee and shall be audited by them annually, prior to the third AzPa meeting each year.
He/she shall make a report to the membership at each regular meeting of AzPa and to the Board of Directors when requested to do so. The office of Secretary and Treasurer may be performed by the same person.
There shall be three (3) Directors elected from the membership. They shall serve a term of three (3) staggered years, thus requiring the election of one member per year.
F. Death or Resignation of Officers
In the event of death or resignation of any officer of AzPa, the President. with the consent of a majority of the Board of Directors. shall be empowered to select a Member in good standing to serve the unexpired term of the deceased or resigning officer. In the event of the death or resignation of the President. a Vice President, who has been appointed by the Board of Directors, shall perform the duties of the President until the next annual election. If either Vice-President is deceased or resigns. The Board of Directors, by majority vote, will appoint an acting Vice-President for the unexpired term.
BOARD OF DlRECTORS
A. The Board of Directors will consist of the President. Vice-President–Police, Vice-President–Private, Secretary/Treasurer, immediate Past President and three (3) Directors elected from the membership. The president shall serve as Chairman of the Board of Directors.
B. The Board of Directors shall meet at least once in conjunction with each regularly scheduled AzPa meeting and shall meet at such other times and places as may be necessary on call of the Chairman of the Board of Directors. Not less than five (5) members constitute a quorum of the Board of Directors.
C. The Board of Directors shall be the responsible body for the administration of AzPa In the interval between regular meetings of AzPa the Board of Directors shall have authority to take such actions as are necessary for the conduct of AzPa’s By-Laws. The Board of Directors shall make a report of its transactions at the annual AzPa meeting. or at any other regularly scheduled meeting when deemed appropriate.
The following standing committees shall be designated annually by the newly elected President. The President shall appoint the Chairman of each committee. Chairman of Committees will serve for one year. They may succeed themselves for one additional year upon approval of the newly elected President.
A. Membership Committee
This committee will consist of at least one (1) Member in good standing who shall be the Chairman of the Membership Committee. The Chairman may appoint the number of members necessary to enable him/her to perform his/her duties. The Membership Committee shall be empowered to examine the qualifications of applicants for all categories of membership. It shall perform such investigations as may be required at their discretion to determine the eligibility of membership of all applicants. The Membership Committee shall present its nomination for admissions of qualified applicants to the membership during the business meeting at a regularly scheduled AzPa meeting. The Committee shall investigate qualifications of polygraph Schools and advise the Board of Directors regarding accreditation. This Committee will appoint Members to review the work of interns in accordance with the provisions of Article IV-B-6.
B. Committee on Standards and Ethics
This Committee will consist of one (1) Member in good standing who shall be the Chairman of the Committee on Standards and Ethics. The Chairman may appoint the number of members necessary to enable him/her to perform his/her duties. This Committee shall examine techniques. In addition, this Committee shall devise and hold under continuing review the development of a Code of Ethics.
The Chairman of this Committee will receive from the President all written complaints, charges of allegations which have been levied against AzPa members. It is the responsibility of this Committee to expeditiously, fairly and impartially undertake necessary investigative actions in order to prove or disprove the charges, complaints or allegations.
The Committee’s findings and recommendations will, in turn, be reviewed by the Board of Directors, who will make a determination regarding appropriate actions in accord with ARTICLE IV-G. The Committee on Standards and Ethics is not authorized to receive or act upon any complaint, charge or allegation which the complainant has not submitted in writing.
C. Auditing Committee
This Committee will consist of at least three (3) Members in good standing who do not hold an elected office in AzPa As a minimum, the Auditing Committee shall audit the books of the Treasurer once annually. Additional audits may be made at the discretion of the President. The Chairman of Auditing Committee shall immediately inform the Board of Directors of any discrepancies found during any audit.
D. Committee on Research and Instrumentation
This Committee shall consist of at least three (3) members, preferably those who do not hold elected office in AzPa The Committee will be charged with collecting and presenting to the membership any developments in polygraph instrumentation and research. The Committee shall recommend for or against the acceptance of new instrumentation or techniques with regard to their effectiveness for use in the polygraph field.
E. Training and Seminar Committee
This Committee will consist of both Vice-Presidents, who may appoint other members to help perform their duties. This committee will be responsible for selecting meeting locations and assuring adequate meeting facilities. The Committee will be charged with developing and presenting meaningful blocks of training regarding polygraph techniques, and with obtaining guest speakers who will make presentations of general interest to the membership.
F. Legislative Committee
This Committee shall consist of one (1) Member in good standing, who shall be the Chairman of the Legislative Committee. The Chairman may appoint the number of members necessary to enable him/her to perform his/her duties. It shall be the responsibility of their Committee to keep abreast of all legislative matters regarding polygraphs in the State of Arizona specifically, and in the United States generally. Until effected, this Committee will be charged with the duty of exerting continuing and constructive efforts to bring about a polygraph licensing law in the State of Arizona. In this regard, the Committee members must be able and willing to undertake the necessary travel to the State Capitol and elsewhere, in the furtherance of their duties.
G. Constitution and By-Laws Revision Committee
This Committee shall consist of one (1) Member in good standing. who shall be the Chairman of the Constitution and By-Law Committee. The Chairman may appoint the number of members necessary to enable him/her to perform his/her duties. It shall be the responsibility of this Committee to assure that the Constitution and By-Laws of Az.P.A are kept up to date by making changes, revisions or amendments when necessary and presenting them to the membership to vote on. This Committee, at the direction of the President and the Board of Directors, will consider written proposals for revisions. changes and amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws from the members of the association.
A. This Constitution and By-Laws may be amended by a favorable vote of two-thirds majority of the membership present and voting at a regularly scheduled AzPa meeting. No amendment shall be voted upon unless a copy of the proposed amendment shall have been sent to every voting member of AzPa at least thirty (30) days prior to a regularly scheduled meeting.
B. This Constitution and By-Laws may be amended by a mail ballot upon a majority vote of voting members responding provided that the proposed amendment has been circulated in writing to the voting membership at least thirty (30) days prior to the designated date of the mail vote.
C. Amendments shall take effect immediately when approved. unless otherwise stated in the amendment.
The Parliamentary Authority for AzPa shall be Robert’s Rules of Order (revised) in all instances not covered by the Constitution and By-Laws
STANDARDS AND PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICE
In order to achieve unity of purpose, to assure a clear concept of obligations of each other and to the profession. and to provide for the continuing welfare and protection of the general public. all members of the Arizona Polygraph Association have agreed to abide by the following Standards and Principle of Practice:
1. Each member shall recognize the fact that his/her primary responsibility must be to the person who has volunteered for a polygraph examination, regardless of the circumstance which created the need for the examination.
2. Recognizing that a polygraph examination cannot be conducted on a person against his/her will, no member will attempt to conduct an examination when he/she has reason to believe the examinee has been subjected to coercion or duress. Further. no examiner shall conduct any examination in violation of any existing legislation pertaining to polygraphy. Legal exceptions to this requirement are recognized and may be justified on individual basis only.
3. No member shall conduct an examination on any person whom he/she believes to be physically or psychologically unfit for testing. In case of doubt as to whether the examination would be harmful to the subject, either physically or mentally. the member should seek expert guidance from a competent medical or psychological authority prior to testing.
4. No member shall render a conclusive verbal or written decision or report based on chart analysis without having administered two or more polygraph charts, with the same relevant questions appearing on at least two charts. This shall apply to any type of specific examination.
5. No members shall terminate a polygraph examination without affording the examinee a reasonable opportunity to explain and/or to eliminate any reactions indicative of deception to relevant issues which are evident on the charts.
6. No member shall include in any written report, any of his/her statements purporting to be a medical,legal or psychiatric opinion, or which would infringe upon areas under the cognizance of professionals in those fields. This shall not preclude the examiner from describing the appearance or behavior of the examinee, if this is pertinent to the examination, as long as the examiner refrains from offering any diagnosis which he/she is professionally unqualified to make.
7. A member shall not conduct an examination where he/she has reason to believe the examination is intended to circumvent or to defy the law.
8. Every polygraph chart shall be a factual, impartial and objective account of the pertinent information developed during the examination. and the examiner’s professional conclusion based on analysis of the polygraph charts.
9. A member shall be guilty of gross negligence if it be proven that he/she did deliberately falsify any part of a polygraph report. both written or orally. Further. it shall be deemed highly unethical for any examiner to express verbally or in writing, a test conclusion which is based solely upon subjective opinion or personal assumption. This does not preclude a professional judgment based upon interpretation and analysis of the polygraph charts in the absence of substantive admissions by the examinee.
10. Private examiners are cautioned that promises made to the examinee, that the examiner will not divulge to the client, extraneous and-or personally degrading or embarrassing information having no bearing on the issue being resolve, must be kept. Failure to respect this confidence is a serious violation of professional ethics and may subject the examiner to dismissal from the Association and to potential civil or criminal action.
11. A member shall not offer testimony. concerning the charts or conclusions presented by another member unless he uses or is sufficiently familiar with the techniques and procedures used by the other member. This restriction does not apply when the technique in question is not one of the recognized techniques listed and catalogued by this association. This paragraph shall not prohibit a member from testifying concerning his independent examination of the same examinee.
12. It shall be considered a violation of professional ethics for any member of this Association to deliberately degrade or malign another member of the association in public. in court or otherwise. Such conduct may subject the violating polygraphist to censure, investigation and/or expulsion from the Association. It is recognized that occasional differences of opinion regarding techniques and test results will occur. In such instances, it shall clearly be stated as a “difference of opinion”.
Complaints against a member by a member will be lodged in writing for review, investigation and necessary action.
13. A member shall not publish or cause to be published any false or misleading advertisement relating to the polygraph profession.
14. Any AzPa polygraphist who knowingly and deliberately administers examinations in a manner not consistent with the spirit of this document will be considered in violation of the Constitution and By- Laws, thereby subjecting him/herself to possible censure. investigation and/or expulsion from the Association.
15. Only with the approval of the President and/or the Board of Directors, can a member give any news release or give any public statement which implies to represent the opinions, views, etc. of the AzPa.
1. Regular meetings shall be held at least two (2) times per year; at least one (1) of these meetings will also include a training seminar. The training seminar shall be at least 24 hours to maintain industry standards for continuing education.
2. The Training and Seminar Committee shall select the meeting site.
3. A majority of AzPa membership in good standing, present at a regularly scheduled meeting, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of any business.
4. The Board of Directors shall meet prior to the business meeting of each regularly scheduled AzPa meeting.
5. Each standing committee shall meet prior to the business meeting of each regularly scheduled AzPa meeting, if deemed necessary by the chairman.
6. Applications for membership must be in the hands of the Chairman of the Membership Committee not later than thirty (30) days before the AzPa scheduled meetings.
7. Except in the case of extenuating circumstances, failure to be present at least two (2) Board meetings per calendar year, will result in automatic removal from the Board of Directors.
8. Except in the case of verified extenuating circumstances, failure to be present at both the training session and business meeting of a least one regularly scheduled AzPa meeting during the calendar year will result in automatic termination of resident Members or Interns.
9. All members of AzPa as provided by Robert’s Rules. shall be entitled to the floor of any AzPa meeting; however, only Members in good standing are eligible to vote upon motions, election of Officers. and other business of AzPa before the membership.
10. Voting for election of Officers will be done by secret ballot.
11. Any member in good standing regardless of type of membership, may indicate in a autobiography, biography, letterhead, advertising, resume, or in an oral pronouncement that he/she holds membership in AzPa, provided that the exact class of membership is stated.
12. The rate of annual dues for Members. Interns and Affiliates shall be reviewed and may be changed at the annual meeting.
13. Dues are based upon the calendar year and are due and payable on January 1. If the dues have not been paid by or during the annual meeting date, membership is automatically terminated
14. Special assessments may be levied against the membership if so approved by a three-fourths vote of the membership present at a regularly scheduled meeting.
15. During the month of November, the Treasurer shall send a statement to each dues paying member informing him/her that his/her annual financial obligation to AzPa is due and payable by January 1.
16. There shall be an AzPa membership roster published annually after the annual meeting. The five (5) categories of membership shall be indicated in the roster.
17. AzPa funds shall be used for the dissemination of information and such other expenses as may be deemed necessary. Other expenditures. prior to being incurred, must be approved by a majority vote of the Board of Directors, and/or by a majority vote of the voting membership present at a regularly scheduled AzPa meeting.
18. Election of officers will take place at the annual meeting. Newly elected officers will assume the responsibilities of their offices immediately.
19. In the event that any member of AzPa becomes ineligible for continued membership, regardless of the reason. he/she shall be required to surrender his/her Certificate of Membership to the Secretary within thirty (30) days after officially becoming ineligible for continued membership. A member in good standing, designated by the Board of Directors, will pay a personal visit to the individual for the purpose of recovering the Certificate and returning it to the Secretary.
20. All membership certificates wil1 bear the notation that the certificate is the property of AzPa.
21. It shall be the responsibility of the Chairman of the membership Committee to notify the applicants of the date and time of their required appearance before the Membership Committee. The Committee shall present its nominations for admission of qualified applicants to the membership during the business meeting.
22. A member who knowingly makes a false certification or endorsement regarding an applicant’s eligibility and/or qualifications, will be subject to termination of his/her membership.
23. Public criticism of one member by another, other than before the Committee on Standards and Ethics or the Board of Directors, is condemned and expressly forbidden for all members of AzPa.
24. AzPa members shall abide by decisions and recommendations officially adopted by AzPa at any regularly scheduled meeting.
POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION: A polygraph examination begins when the examines enters the examination room and is completed at the moment he leaves the examination room.
POLYGRAPH INSTRUMENT: For AzPa purposes. a polygraph examination has not been conducted if the instrument used is not capable of simultaneously recording, at a minimum, respiration, galvanic skin response, pulse rate and relative blood pressure changes, permanently on paper.
POLYGRAPH CHART: A polygraph chart is one continuous set of test questions recorded on paper by the polygraph instrument.
SCREENING EXAMINATION: A screening examination is one in which, without any specific allegation, an individual is examined to verify his/her honesty. integrity and conduct as an employee.
SPEClFIC EXAMINATION: A specific examination is one in which there is one specific issue to be resolved, e.g., theft, burglary, robbery murder, etc.
PRE-EMPLOYMENT EXAMlNATION: An examination in which an individual is tested regarding the truthfulness and accuracy of an employment application. along with other background areas, which aids the employer in selecting the most qualified individual for a position within the organization.
KNOWN PEAK OF TENSION TEST: This is a series of similar type questions containing only one relevant question. known to the polygraphist.
SEARCHING PEAK OF TENSION TEST: A series of questions wherein the relevant question(s) are not known to the polygraphist].
IRRELEVANT QUESTION: An irrelevant question is intended to be an innocuous. harmless question, having no particular relationship to the issue being resolved. and which can unequivocally be answered truthfully
PRIMARY RELEVANT QUESTION: The key question regarding the direct act of committing an offense.
SECONDARY RELEVANT QUESTION: A question pertaining to pertinent aspects of the issue. to which a guilty or knowledgeable person would be expected to respond significantly.
CONTROL QUEST1ON: A question to which the examinee’s answer will be a known lie or a probable lie. This question is similar in nature but not related to the issue being resolved, and should be of slightly less weight than the relevant questions.
GUILT COMPLEX QUESTION: A question about a fictitious incident of individual. and of a similar nature and weight as the issue being resolved.
SYMPTOMAT1C QUESTION: A question use to determine it some outside issue is of such concern to the examinee that it tends to damage expected responses to relevant questions.
STIMULATION TEST: Verifies for the examiner that the examinee is testable. and aids in convincing the examinee that the polygraph instrument works, and will work on him.
BASIC EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS
1. THE EXAMINING ROOM
Polygraph examinations should be conducted in a quiet. private room. Under normal circumstances only the polygraphist and examines are permitted in the examining room.
2. PRE-TEST INTERVIEW
The examination actually begins with the first contact between the examinee and the polygraphist. The pre- test interview is vital to a proper polygraph examination. and no examination will be administered by any AzPa member without an adequate pre-test interview.
3. QUESTION FORMULATION
Question formulation should be conduced in accordance with established standards and techniques. Unless specifically required by the nature of the issue being resolved, no questions regarding morals or the intimate details of a person’s personal life will be asked.
4. TEST CONSTRUCTION
The use and placement of test questions within the question sequence must adhere to and be in accordance with those techniques generally recognized and widely accepted within the polygraph profession.
5. STIMULATION TEST
The “stim” test is optional. It may be conducted either as the first polygraph chart or inserted between polygraph charts. The fact that an individual has been previously examined, perhaps even by the same polygraphist], does not negate the use of the “stim” test.
6. REVIEW OF TEST QUESTIONS
Under no circumstances will any test be administered without a prior, thorough review of all test questions with the examinee.
7. ADMINISTERING THE POLYGRAPH CHARTS
a. After applying pressure to the blood pressure cuff at the time of the test, the polygraphist should be able to announce the beginning of the test with minimum delay.
b. Test questions should be usually spaced at not less than 15 second intervals.
c. The administering of the polygraph examination shall be conducted in accordance with established standards and techniques which are taught by the accredited schools.
8. CHART INTERPRETATION
Chart interpretation is the final key to a valid polygraph examination. Under no circumstances is it permitted that a AzPa polygraphist overlook or ignore the established, basic concepts of chart interpretation taught in all accredited polygraph schools.
GLOSSARY from the C.A.P.E. HANDBOOK
AFFERENT NERVE FIBERS Those neural fibers which carry nerve impulses toward the central nervous system.
See: Efferent nerve Fibers
ALL OR NONE LAW The principle of neural discharge which holds that in a stimulus – response situation, a neuron will respond to its maximum capacity or not at all.
ANALYSIS The separation of observed psychophysiological responses recorded on a polygraph chart for the purpose of form expert opinion. A statement reflecting the results of the evaluation of a polygraph chart.
See: Numerical Evaluation
ANTI – CLIMAX DAMPENING The principle of psychological focus which holds that a person will establish an emotional priority for that stimulus which he perceives to represent the greatest threat to his well being.
See: Super Dampening
ANXIETY A state of mental uneasiness or concern. Abnormal apprehension or fear, often accompanied by psychological signs, behavior symptoms or doubt concerning the nature and reality of a threat; real or imagined. Unfounded self – doubt.
See: Behavior Symptoms
APNEA The transient cessation of breathing which follows forced breathing. On a polygraph chart, apnea is generally represented by a blocking pattern in the pneumograph tracing
APPLIED STIMULUS An intentionally applied external stimulus, normally in the form of a question, directed to a person under going a polygraph examination. An applied stimulus may be employed for the purpose of demonstrating a persons response capabilities at the time the stimulus is applied.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM That part of the peripheral nervous system consisting of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system.
AXON The central core which forms the essential conducting part of a nerve fiber. An extension from and a part of the cytoplasm of some nerve cells.
BEHAVIOR SYMPTOMS Those subjectively observable non-verbal manifestations of a person at the time of an applied stimulus which may or may not be indicative of that person’s veracity.
BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE The visual representation of an increase or decrease in blood pressure or volume on a polygraph chart by the cardio component of a polygraph instrument.
CARDIO COMPONENT The component of a polygraph instrument which records either mechanically or electronically, the variations of a person’s blood pressure and pulse rate.
CARDIOSPHYGMOGRAPH The tracing on a polygraph chart, made by a pen moved by a bellows device in connection with a closed air pressurized circuit and an in-line cardiosphygmomanometer, which reflects blood pressure and radial pulse in response to an applied stimulus.
CARDIOSPHYGMOMANOMETER An in-line pressure dial in a closed air pressurized circuit capable of representing the pressure in that circuit in units of millimeters of mercury.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Those portions of an organism which contain the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries. The functional means by which blood is transported throughout the body.
CEREBELLUM That portion of the brain which projects over the medulla and is especially concerned with the coordination of muscular activity and body equilibrium.
CEREBRUM The enlarged front and upper part of the brain which contains the higher nervous centers.
CHART The graphic recorded representations of a persons psychophysiological responses to a set of carefully controlled stimuli presented to him in the form of a valid and reliable question structure.
See: Test Technique
CHART IDENTIFICATION Any information placed on a polygram which identified the person examined, the polygraphist conducting the examination as well as any other data, time and place of the examination, including the signature of the examinee, if obtainable.
CONTROL STIMULATION TEST A modified peak of tension test used to relax the non-deceptive examinee and stimulate the deceptive examinee by empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the polygraph technique.
CONTROL QUESTION That question within a structured technique which is broad in scope and depth, generally limited by mutually exclusive time parameter, which relates to a wrong doing of the same general nature as the one under investigation, and one to which the examiner will, in all probability, lie or to which his answer will be of dubious validity in his own mind.
COUNTER MEASURES Deliberate chemical, mental or physical, attempts by an examinee to affect the polygraph tracings or the final outcome of a polygraph examination.
CUFF PRESSURE The air pressure in the inflatable bladder in the blood pressure cuff as indicated on the sphygmomanometer of the polygraph instrument in units of millimeters of mercury.
DENDRITES An extension or process of a neuron which serves to conduct impulses toward the cell body.
DICROTIC NOTCH A graphic representation within the cardio tracing on a polygraph chart caused by a backward surge of blood against the semi-lunar valve in the left ventricle of the heart.
DISTORTION A change in polygraph tracings caused by artifact stimulus. A disturbance of normal polygraph tracings not attributable to an intended stimulus within a test structure.
DYSPENA Abnormal breathing characterized by either labored breathing, shortness of breath, suppression or serrated exhalation.
EFFERENT NERVE FIBERS Those neural fibers which carry impulses away from the central nervous system.
See: Afferent Nerve Fibers.
EGO DEFENSE MECHANISMS Those psychological defenses used by a person to shield himself against that which he perceives to represent a threat to his immediate well-being.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS Those ductless glands which discharge their secretions directly into the blood stream. In general, the endocrine glands coordinate and control body activities at a slower rate than the nervous system and thus promote long term adjustments.
ENVELOPING QUESTION A question used at the beginning and end of a searching peak of tension test which deals with an issue or subject which is beyond the realm of possibility of the information being sought.
See: Padding Question
EUPNEA Regular or normal breathing.
EXAMINEE An individual who has volunteered for and undergoes a polygraph examination.
EXCITABILITY The potential ability of a neuron to respond to any given stimulus.
EXTRASYSTOLE A premature contraction of the heart which is independent of the normal rhythm and which arises in response to an impulse in some part of the heart other than the sino-auricular node, or from some abnormal stimulus. An extrasystole appears in the cardio tracing of a polygraph chart as a break in the normal rhythm of the heart. An Extrasystole occurs during or at the end of a diastole and is characterized by the lack of a systolic stroke and a following lower pressure diastole (compensatory pause). An extrasystole recovers with a strong systolic stroke followed by a period of rising cardio pressure in recovery to a normal rhythm.
FIGHT OR FLIGHT SYNDROME The activation of involuntary sympathetic neural activity upon conscious recognition of a threat to the immediate well-being of an organism. A group of neural symptoms which enable an organism to cope with a stressful or threatening situation by taking that organism from a normal relaxed state to an emergency state of preparedness for the sake of survival.
FORENSIC PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY Modern term for polygraph examination.
See: Lie detector Polygraphist
GALVANOGRAPH The tracing on a polygraph chart made by a pen moved by a galvanometer controlled by an examinee’s psychophysiological responses to stimuli.
GALVANOMETER COMPONENT The instrument used to determine the presence of a current in a conductor, the direction of flow and the strength of the current. In the polygraph instrument, the galvanometer component is controlled by a Wheatstone Bridge which in turn is controlled by the psychogalvanic reflex of the examinee.
See: Psychogalvanic Skin Response
GANGLIA Groups of nerve cell bodies found in the autonomic plexuses composed primarily of sympathetic postganglionic neurons.
GUILT COMPLEX A group of associated ideas or attitudes which have a common emotional tone of feelings of universal responsibility. these ideas or attitudes may be conscious or unconscious; however, they may significantly influence an individuals behavior or psychophysiological responses when confronted with an accusation.
GUILT COMPLEX QUESTION A question included in a structured polygraph test designed to identify a person who may be inappropriately responding to relevant and control questions due to a guilt complex. This question is usually one which concerns a nonexistent crime or circumstance which an examinee is led to believe did exist in which he is suspect but which he knows he could not have committed.
HIDDEN KEY An item of evidence known only to the victim, perpetrator, investigator and polygraphist.
See: Known Peak of Tension Test.
HOMESTASIS The tendency of an organism to maintain a state of equilibrium between interrelated psychological and psyiological stimuli.
HYPOTHALAMUS That portion of the brain which contains centers for the regulation of body temperatures, sleep and water balance. It also appears to be the center for the integration of emotions, visceral activity and neural impulses which trigger the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
IRRELEVANT QUESTION sees Neutral question.
KNOWN PEAK OF TENSION TEST A polygraph test in which a series of questions, all similar in nature and scope, only one of which, known to the perpetrator of the crime and the polygraphist, has any bearing upon the matter under investigation. This one pertinent question (hidden key) may appear as a peak of tension in any one or more of the polygraph tracings.
LIE DETECTOR An archaic term no longer used in polygraphy. A generic term commonly used to describe either a polygraph instrument or a person who administers a polygraph examination
See: Forensic Psychophysiology Polygraphist
MECHANICAL ADJUSTMENT The manual centering of the ink pens on a polygraph instrument in order to maintain the individual component tracings within their appropriate physical parameters.
MEDULA OBLONGATA The lowest or hindmost part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord. Contains centers of respiratory, cardio inhibitory, cardio acceleratory, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, swallowing, salivary and vomiting
MIDBRAIN The middle segment of the brain containing the centers for certain visual and auditory reflexes.
NAME TEST A controlled peak of tension test utilized to establish an examinee’s response capability to a known lie in which the name of a person upon whom the examinee places emotional significance is used as a known peak of tension.
NERVES Those strands of tissue which specialize in the transmission of impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord and all parts of the body.
NEURON A single nerve cell.
NEUTRAL QUESTION A question which does not pertain to the issue under investigation the answer to which recognized as universally correct by both the examinee and the polygraphist. A neutral question is intended to elicit a minimal response from the examinee and provide the polygraphist with a valid graphic representation of the examinee’s non-stress response patterns.
NUMERICAL EVALUATION An valid and reliable system of numerical evaluation which employs a consistent set of values to describe the observable physiological responses graphically represented on a polygraph chart.
OPINION The expert conclusion expressed by a qualified polygraphist concerning the veracity of the statements made by examinee.
OUTSIDE ISSUE A circumstance unrelated to the primary issue which poses a greater threat to the immediate well-being of the examinee than does the primary relevant issue.
PADDING QUESTIONS Those questions placed before and after the known relevant question in a known peak of tension test. Padding questions are similar in nature to the known relevant question and fall within the realm of possibility of the information being sought.
See: Enveloping Question
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM That part of the autonomic nervous system which tends to induce secretion, to increase the tone and contractibility of smooth muscle and to channel the dilation of blood vessels. That division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the normal “house keeping functions of the body; i.e. digestion and body temperature.
PEAK OF TENSION TEST See: Known Peak of Tension Test
Searching Peak of Tension Test
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM That portion of the nervous system lying outside the central nervous system.
See: Autonomic Nervous System
PLETHSYSMOGRAPH The tracing on a polygraph chart made by a pen moved by a photo-optical system controlled by an examinee’s psychophysiological responses to controlled stimuli.
PLETHSYSMOGRAPH COMPONENT A photo-optical component of a polygraph instrument capable of electronically observing and recording changes in blood volume, pulse rate and blood oxygen content.
PNEUMOGRAPH The tracing on a polygraph chart made by a pen moved by a bellows devise controlled by an examinee’s psychophysiological responses to controlled stimuli.
PNEUMO COMPONENT The component of a polygraph instrument which records, either mechanically or electronically, the variations of an examinee’s breathing, specifically the tidal volume of the lungs
POLYGRAM One or more polygraph charts. The cumulative recorded representations of an examinee’s psychophysiological responses to a set of controlled stimuli presented to him in the form of a properly constructed question technique upon which an expert opinion is formed.
POLYGRAPH A generic term generally used to refer to the polygraph instrument or the polygraph technique.
POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION The entire environment within which a qualified polygraphist renders an expert opinion as to the veracity of an examinee’s statements concerning the primary issue of the matter under investigation.
POLYGRAPHIST An individual who, by virtue of his education, training and experience, is capable of conducting a valid and reliable polygraph examination for the purpose of determining whether or not an examinee honestly believes that his own statements and answers concerning a questioned issue are in fact truthful.
POLYGRAPH INSTRUMENT An instrument containing three or more components, each capable of accurately and reliably recording human psychophysiological events on a permanent record in the form of a moving graph. An instrument used by a qualified polygraphist for the purpose of forming an expert opinion concerning the veracity of a examine’s statement.
PONS A band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes of the cerebellum, the medulla and the cerebrum.
PRE-EXAMINATION INTERVIEW That portion of a polygraph examination during which information is obtained by the polygraphist from the examinee regarding the facts and circumstances which from the basis of the examination and from which the polygraphist develops appropriate questions for the polygraph technique to be employed.
PSYCHOGALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE The recordable changes of body tissue polarization (neural discharge), sweat gland activity or circulatory variations which occur as the result of work, emotion or a combination of either. In polygraphy, these changes are recorded on a polygraph chart by a pen attached to a galvanometer driven by the variations of electrical conductivity introduced into a Wheatstone Bridge by the body tissues of an examinee.
See: Wheatstone Bridge Galvanometer Component
PSYCHOLOGICAL SET The theory which holds that a person’s fears, anxieties and apprehensions will be directed toward that situation which presents the greatest immediate threat to his self-preservation or general well-being; generally to the exclusion of all other less threatening circumstances within his environment.
See: Super Dampening.
PSYCHOSIS A form of sever personality disorder involving loss of contact with reality, generally characterized by delusions and hallucinations.
QUESTION SPACING The elapsed time (not less than 15 seconds) between an answer given by an examinee and the following question asked by the polygraphist during a polygraph test.
RECEPTORS Those specialized cells sensitive to incoming stimuli.
REFLEX ACTION The cumulative product of stimulus, receptor, afferent nerve, connecting neuron, efferent nerve and effector action. A simple reflex arc.
REFRACTORY PERIOD That period of time in which a neuron is unable to conduct an impulse.
RELEVANT QUESTION That question within a structured polygraph test which pertains directly to the matter under investigation.
RESIDUAL AIR That volume of air which remains in the lungs after the deepest possible exhalation.
See: Tidal volume
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM That portion or function of an organism which absorbs oxygen into the body so that nutrients can be changed into usable form. The system responsible for the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and body tissues.
SACRIFICE RELEVANT QUESTION A question used in the Zone comparison Test designed for the intended to dissipate initial tension anticipated by an examinee in response to the target issue.
SEARCHING PEAK OF TENSION TEST A polygraph test in which a series of questions, usually similar in nature and scope, are asked and in which the answer to only one of them may evoke a response from the examinee.
SENSOR Any attachment made to the human body for the purpose of measuring and/or recording a psychophysiological response during a polygraph test.
SPECIFIC RESPONSE A deviation from an examinee’s normal state of homeostasia as evidenced by the tracings on a polygraph chart. Consideration must be given to overall chart interpretation with emphasis on the nature of the questions asked, the sequential position of the question within the structure used and the manner in which the question was presented to the examinee.
SPOT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE A system of chart interpretation whereby analysis of response capability may be made at each location on a polygraph chart wherein a relevant question is either preceded by or followed by a control question.
See: Analysis Numerical Evaluation
SUPER DAMPENING The principle of psychological focus which holds that if a person considers an outside issue to be a greater threat to his well-being than the main relevant issue, and that if he anticipates an unreviewed question concerning this outside issue, he may tune out all relevant and control questions by forcing his psychological set on the outside issue. The presence of an outside issue usually results in poor responses or no responses.
See: Symptomatic Questions Anti-climax Dampening
SUPPRESSION An involuntary reduction in the amplitude of the pneumograph and cardiograph tracings in response to a stressful stimulus.
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM That part of the autonomic nervous system which tends to depress secretion, decrease the tone and contractibility of muscle not under direct voluntary control, and cause the contraction of blood vessels.
See: Parasympathetic Nervous System Fight or Flight Syndrome
SYMPTOMATIC QUESTION A question contained within a structured question technique which is designed to identify the presence of an outside issue upon which a person may be focusing during the course of a polygraph examination.
SYNAPSIS The chemical junctions where nerve impulses pass from one neuron to another.
SYSTEM A group of body organs which combine to form a whole and to cooperate for the purpose of carrying on some vital function.
TEST TECHNIQUE A valid and reliable question structure employed by a qualified polygraphist for the purpose of verifying an examinee’s statements or answers during a polygraph examination. The sequential order in which questions are asked during a polygraph examination. The foundation of expert opinion.
THALAMUS The middle part of the brain through which sensory impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex.
TIDAL VOLUME The volume of air moved in or out of the lungs with each respiratory cycle.
See: Residual Air
TISSUES Cells of a like nature grouped together for a common purpose.
WHEATSTONE BRIDGE A specially devised electronic circuit for the measurement of electrical resistance in a conductor. The conductor of unknown resistance is included in the circuit with three known resistances. when the unknown resistance (RX) is balanced with three known resistances (R1, R2, R3) it can be calculated mathematically since it becomes one term in a proportion.
Rx = R2 R1 R3